The city has many cultural and artistic events aimed at pleasing a variety of tastes from the most refined to the coarsest. In Milan, especially after the Expo, there has been a greater flow of foreign visitors. Numerous exhibitions have been organized at various levels of quality, with many responding to a market economy. The criticism of some art historians is that exhibitions are no longer handled by museums, but promoted by agencies. Tomaso Montanari and Vincenzo Trione in their recent book ”Contro le Mostre” (Against Exhibitions) published by Einaudi Editore 2017, criticize exhibition methodology and the commercial purposes with which most exhibitions are often set up. However, the offer is high because the demand is considerable. What attracts visitors in Italy? It depends; for some artists the name is enough (for example, the Caravaggio exhibition is sold out), or a well-orchestrated advertisement; other exhibitions are more niche–like, as in the one of the Adoration of the Shepherds at the Diocesan Museum (from October 2017 to January 2018).
The Diocesan Museum, which has a magnificent collection of medieval gold leaf panel paintings from the 14th and 15th centuries, can also be visited during this exhibition. Every year, around the Christmas festivities, the Museum offers the opportunity to see a religious artwork from public or private collections. These yearly exhibitions are entitled “A Masterpiece for Milan”; the last two exhibits were a panel of Albrecht Dürer’s, “Adoration of the Magi”, followed by an installation of Adrian Paci’s “The Guardians”, which proposed a dialogue between contemporary art and the great artistic tradition of the Museum.
In “The Adoration of the Shepherds” the attention of the viewer is focused on a single painting on display, which concerns the theme of the nativity. Pietro Vannucci is the artist, also called Il Perugino (ca. 1450 – 1523). The Adoration was part of the grandiose altarpiece of Sant’Agostino, commissioned to Vannucci by the Augustinian friars in the early 1500s. It constituted the part addressed to the clergy, while the faithful could admire the Baptism of Christ in the recto. His work is an oil on a panel that was part of a much larger polyptych (436cm by 618cm), then dismembered in the mid-1600s and displayed in various parts of the church to make way for a new altar. Towards the end of the 1700s, during the suppression of monasteries and religious foundations by Napoleon, almost all the panels were taken to Toulouse, Lyon and Paris, though the Adoration is part of the National Gallery collection in Perugia.
The theme of The Adoration of the Shepherds is affirmed around 1300; before the nativity was depicted in a much more simplified and symbolic way. In the Renaissance the narrative prevails: an angel announces the coming of Jesus to the shepherds, who go to worship him. Perugino has painted several versions of the same theme, frequently using paperboard, so the figures in the various works often have the same postures. His masterpiece is the Adoration of the Polittico of St. Augustine. In the foreground of the Adoration, the chubby child in a mischievous pose, lying on a soft pillow, is adored by Mary and Joseph, while the pastors in the middle ground reproduce the same poses of the Angels above them. In the background there are flocks of sheep and a donkey. The atmosphere of peace and concentration accords with the pale hues of the sky and the green landscape that gradually fades into infinity.
Perugino is recognized as one of the greatest Italian artists of his time, before the emergence of Michelangelo and Leonardo, which will change the course of art once again. In this oil painting we can admire his characteristic elements: rhythm, symmetry, an exceptional technical skill in drawing, combined with a search for balance between figures, architecture and landscape, all enhanced by a refinement of colors. What attracts is the message of peace and serenity that the painting manages to transmit, through the classically harmonious art of the Renaissance. The panels should not be dispersed but united as they originally were; history and art should not be cancelled because it is politically incorrect, otherwise we assist the destruction also of our past.
Note: The book, “Contro le Mostre” can be found at: http://www.einaudi.it/
Liviana Martin is our Milan Reviewer
Volume 32 no 3 Jan/Feb 2018 pp 28-29